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"Human judges can show mercy. But against the laws of nature,
there is no appeal." — Arthur C. Clarke

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CHRONOLOGICAL listing of major disasters occuring worldwide during 2002, presented in descending order:
. . . . . . . . . .
january . february . march . april . may . june . july . august . september
october . november . december

incident/source links
Cyclone Waka hits Kingdom of Tonga with winds estimated at 100 knots (185 km/h) and gusts up to 140 knots (260 km/h), causing extensive damage to Vava'u and Niuafo'ou and the displacement of 1,000-1,500 families as homes are destroyed or seriously damaged. 16,450 people affected. No casualties reported.

ReliefWeb: Tonga—Cyclone Waka
Government of Tonga
Solomon Islands
Cyclone Zoe hits Mota Lava, a small atoll situated at approximately 200 kilometres southwest of Tikopia and Anuta. No casualties reported. Carrying winds of more than 300 km an hour (the most powerful storm ever recorded in the region) the cyclone sweeps sand and sea water over fields of crops, destroying most of the island's habitat. 70 homes are completely destroyed. Out of the water sources implanted in the 8 main villages of Tikopia, one or two appear are contaminated by salt water, dead leaves and debris.

ReliefWeb: Solomon Islands—Cyclone Zoe
CIDI: Solomon Islands—Cyclone Zoe
Sri Lanka
Continuous heavy rainfall for a week causes flooding in the lowland districts in the North Central and North Eastern provinces in Sri Lanka. The districts of Batticoala, Ampara, Trincomalee, Kilinochchi, Polonnaruwa and Anuradhapra are severely affected. 100,000+ families are affected overall, with tens of thousands of people being displaced. Transportation is crippled in Kandy, including Jaffna Road and Colombo, and Batticaloa Road. Several thousands of mud huts are washed away.

ReliefWeb: Sri Lanka floods
CIDI: Sri Lanka floods, OCHA-01
Heavy rain with hail causes a number of large landslides and flash-flooding along many of the creeks and rivers, damaging farmland around Imaki and Isiai villages, the areas west of Whitesand, and around Port Resolution. The majority of roads are blocked and some bridges are washed away, reducing access by vehicle or by foot. No casualties reported; over 3,000 people are affected.

ReliefWeb: Vanuatu—Hail, Landslides and Flooding
Floods triggered by three days of rain hit the Rokanhalu district, Pekanbaru, Province of Riau. Houses and farmland in at least 27 villages are inundated, 50,000 displaced. No casualties reported.

ReliefWeb: Indonesia Floods
A mudslide, triggered by days of heavy rains, hits a hot springs resort in the Pacet sub-district, Mojokerto district, East Java. 26 casualties reported, hundreds injured, 100 missing.

ReliefWeb: East Java—Pacet Mud Slide
FYR of Macedonia
Heavy rains cause the Vardar river to reach critical levels; 50 homes are destroyed; 50 families dislocated. 200 (out of a total 500) families are severely affected.

ReliefWeb: FYR of Macedonia Floods
A 5.9 earthquake hits Torba, the northern province of Vanuatu. The earthquake affects Merelava in the South Banks Group, a small island with a population of 1,143 in 5 villages. 3 are reported injured; nearly 100 buildings including 3 churches and all 3 primary schools on the island, are damaged.

ReliefWeb: Vanuatu Earthquake
Flooding in western and central Morocco leave 63 dead, 26 missing, approx. 100,000 affected. Heaviest casualties are reported in the Settat region when the river Bengueribi burst out of its banks flooding cities of Bengueribi and El-Ghara near Settat and sweeping away at least 37 people.

ReliefWeb: Morocco Floods
CIDI: Morocco Floods, OCHA-01
Costa Rica, Panama
Severe flooding inundates 110 communities. 7 casualties reported, 53 injured, with 65,000 displaced; 25,000 homes in the three Costa Rican provinces sustain damage and nearly 3,000 hectares of crops are destroyed; in Panama, 675 homes are destroyed and more than 1,500 residents suffer damages to their homes and crops.

ReliefWeb: Costa/Panama Rica Floods
A 5.5 earthquake hits Pakistan's remote mountainous north;six villages in the Diamer district of the Astore valley are most severely affected; 19 people killed. The quake seriously damages roads, infrastructure, and electricity, and cuts off roadways leading into the valley.

ReliefWeb: Pakistan Earthquake
CIDI: Pakistan Earthquake, OCHA-02
CIDI: Pakistan Earthquake, OCHA-01
Incessant rain between 19 and 24 November 2002 causes flooding in the provinces of Nanggroe Aceh Darusallam (NAD) and North Sumatra. In NAD, the flooding affects the districts of South Aceh, Southwest Aceh, Nagan Raya and Aceh Singkil and in North Sumatra the districts of Central Tapanuli and Nias Islands. 117,000 are displaced in six districts in Southwest Aceh. In some areas of North Sumatra, water levels are reported to have risen to four metres. 1 reported casuality, aprox. 82,800 displaced.

ReliefWeb: Indonesia Floods
CIDI: Indonesia Floods, OCHA-02
At least 49 fishermen are killed and 111 remain unaccounted for after a cyclone from the Bay of Bengal hits India's state of West Bengal and neighbouring Bangladesh.

ReliefWeb: India Cyclone
El Reventador Volcano erupts, emanating a cloud of sulphur and ash and contaminating the atmosphere of the Metropolitan District of Quito. Volcanic activity continues for approx. 4 weeks and is felt in three provinces (Pichincha, Sucumbios: Gonzalo Pizarro and Napo), severely affecting thousands of people and livestock. No casualties reported.

ReliefWeb: Ecuador Volcanic Eruption
CIDI: Ecuador Volcanic Eruption, OCHA-05
CIDI: Ecuador Volcanic Eruption, OCHA-03
A series of three moderate earthquakes, ranging from 4.7 to 5.0 on the Richter scale, strike a remote region in northern Pakistan (the epicenter of all three earthquakes lay 300 kms Northeast of Peshawar), killing 11, injuring 40 and leaving 4,000 homeless. Four villages, including Muthat, Tato, Raikot and Jail, as well as a number of smaller hamlets along a 20 km stretch of mountainous terrain, are impacted.

ReliefWeb: Pakistan Earthquake
CIDI: Ecuador Volcanic Eruption, OCHA-02
Flooding forces the evacuation of more than 50,000 people in Lechang, a city in south China's Guangdong province. 330 houses are flooded, more than 3,000 hectares (7,500 acres) of farmland submerged and 58,000 tonnes of crops destroyed. Shaoguan city in the same province is also hit by four days of downpours, with rainfall reaching 211 millimeters (8 inches) in some places and averaging 120 millimeters (nearly 5 inches); 400 houses collapse in the city's environs, and more than 1,300 hectares (3,250 acres) of farmland ruined. No deaths or injuries reported.

ReliefWeb: China Floods
Hurricane Kenna hits Mexico's Pacific coast, killing 1, injuring 54 and damaging 5,310 homes.

ReliefWeb: Mexico—Hurricane Kenna
The government of Paraquay declares a state of emergency after an 8-month drought, leaving 4,970 rural farming families without food or water assistance; 17 reported dead from contaminated water.

ReliefWeb: Paraguay Drought
A 7.6 quake strikes Indonesia's easternmost province of Papua, affecting 9 sub-districts, leaving 9 dead and 633 injured; 1,165 homes are severely damaged, 849 homes partially damaged.

ReliefWeb: Indonesia Earthquake
CIDI: Indonesia Earthquake, OCHA-03
A massive landslide levels houses in Yichikou village, Wuding county in the province of Yunnan, killing 15 and seriously injuring 11. 14 families' homes are buried in the landslide, following a day of continuous rain. Telecommunications and transport links to the tiny community of 179 are also cut off.

ReliefWeb: China Floods
The Senegalese ferry Joola sinks in a fierce gale off the Gambian coast; over 1,800 passengers are killed, 67 survive. The boat was built to hold 600 people. Investigators conclude that passengers rushing to one side of the ship to seek shelter from gale winds triggers the capsizing. Many survivors cling for hours to the ship's upturned hull before rescue. Search planes and boats are not sent out until 12 hours after the ferry overturns.

CNN: Senegal death toll revised by 700
BBC: 'No survivors' under Senegal ferry
CNN: Hundreds missing as ferry sinks
A week of torrential rain causes massive flooding, submerging 26,000 hectares of arable land under water and causes a state of emergency to be declared in six prefectures.

ReliefWeb: Albania Floods
CIDI: Albania Floods, OSHA-01
Hurricanes Isidore and Lili hit Cuba, one casualty, major damage reported.

ReliefWeb: Caribbean Tropical Storms Isidore
& Lili
of North Ossetia-Alania
At approximately 15 kilometres south of the village Karmadon in the southern Russian Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, a large part of the glacier 'Kolka' breaks off and crashs down a mountainside, causing an avalanche. A mudslide 200 metres wide and 10 to 100 metres thick is then generated over a length of 11 kilometres, coming to a halt at about 7 kilometres south of the settlement of Gizel, thereby blocking the Karmadon Gorge, leaving 12 dead, 99 missing; 15 houses are covered by the ice mass.

ReliefWeb: Russian Federation Avalanche
CIDI: Russian Federation Avalanche, OCHA-02
CIDI: Russian Federation Avalanche, OCHA-01
Guatemala mudslide kills 31, leaves many wounded/5 missing, 27 homes destroyed

ReliefWeb: Guatemala Landslide
Tropical depression hits Indian Ocean islands of the Seychelles; hundreds forced to evacuate homes; no casualties reported.

ReliefWeb: Tropical Depression
A tropical storm, which was downgraded from typhoon Hagupit, hits southern China. 20 boats are wrecked and at least 23 are reported missing at sea. 45 towns in Guangdong are flooded, affecting some 1.5 million people.

ReliefWeb: China Floods
Seasonal rains cause water levels to rise in the Mekong River, Dong Thap Muoi (Plain of Reeds) and Long Xuyen Quadrangle areas. Rising waters in An Giang Province threaten hundreds of kilometres of embankments to the south of the Vinh Te dyke.

The Mekong Delta: 154 (136 of whom are children) are reported dead; approx. 100,000 people are affected; 227,640 houses are flooded, 4,163 damaged and 902 collapse. Approx. 35,202 households are evacuated and relocated; 70 homes collapse and 219 are damaged. 68 bridges are damaged or destroyed, and 30 sluices damaged. 1,244 schools are reported inundated. Flood-related losses in the Mekong Delta provinces are estimated at VND 364.162 billion (approx. USD $23.9 million).

The Central Provinces: flash floods and landslides provoked by torrential rains (described as the worst since 1934) occur in the provinces of Ha Tinh and Nghe An, about 250 kilometers south of Hanoi. In Ha Tinh, over 53,000 houses are flooded; 7,253 collapse/swept away, 1,014 small bridges and sluices are damaged/swept away, 179 dams are broken and 26 km of outer dykes are damaged. Approx. 40 metric tons of harvested rice are spoilt. Damages in the province are estimated at USD %50.4 million. In Nghe An Province, 18 people are killed, 6 injured. A total of 11,116 houses are flooded, 123 unroofed and 26 swept away. Damage is estimated at USD 8.1 million. In the province of Gia Lai in the Central Highlands, crops and infrastructure are damaged,estimated at USD $100,000.

CIDI: Vietnam Floods, OCHA-03
CIDI: Vietnam Floods, OCHA-02
CIDI: Vietnam Floods, OCHA-01
Papua New Guinea
A 7.6 earthquake hits the coastal waters north of Papua New Guinea, generating a 1.5m high tsunami, which strikes areas along the coast and outer islands of the province, particularly Muschu and Kairuru, 20km northwest of Wewak, and Walis and Tarawai, 55 km away. Strong aftershocks up to magnitude 6.3 occur on the evenings of both 16 and 17 September. Approx. 520 bush dwellings in the outer islands are destroyed, and a further 200 damaged, affecting 4,400 people. 4 casualties reported, over 70 injured.

ReliefWeb: Papua New Guinea—Earthquake
CIDI: Papua New Guinea—Earthquake, OCHA-04
CIDI: Papua New Guinea—Earthquake, OCHA-03
CIDI: Papua New Guinea—Earthquake, OCHA-02
CIDI: Papua New Guinea—Earthquake, OCHA-01
Typhoon Sinlaku hits southeastern China, leaving 26 dead, 5 missing, and 300,000 evacuated. 16 are killed, and 3,800 houses collapse in the worst-hit city of Wenzhou in Zhejiang province; 5 die in the province's Taizhou; 40 are injured in the Cangnan district of Wenzhou; 3.7 million people and 225,000 hectares (562,500 acres) of farmland are affected.

ReliefWeb: China Floods
Republic of Korea
Typhoon Rusa atrikes the Republic of Korea, bringing torrential rain, floods, and landslides in the east and south of the country. It is the 15th typhoon of 2002, and is reportedly the most powerful typhoon to hit the country since 1959. The coastal city of Kangnung, about 250 km east of Seoul, suffers the worst damage. 17,046 homes are submerged or damaged; one million are affected by power outages as wind gusts knock down electricity poles. Major roads are closed, partially paralyzing key traffic networks, and most domestic flights and ferry services are cancelled. Electricity, gas and telephone lines cut off in many in flooded areas. more than 200 are reported dead, 33 missing and 27,474 left homeless. Losses are estimated at $1.75 billion in property damage. 202 bridges are destroyed; railways and roads are severely damaged in 174 places. High waves sweep away 126 fishing boats and damage mooring facilities in 24 ports. Officials report that 286,480 acres of farmland is damaged.

CIDI: Republic of Korea—Typhoon Rusa, CWS
CIDI: Republic of Korea—Typhoon Rusa, OCHA-01
Mauritanian Government declares a state of emergency in response to widespread drought and imminent famine; over 60,000 Mauritanians face serious food shortages.

ReliefWeb: Mauritania Drought
Unusually heavy rains in Eastern Algeria kill at least 29 people, most of them children (unverified figures of 43 dead, 16 wounded and 457 affected families are reported). 18 of Algeria's 48 provinces are hit by the floodwaters, with the most affected area being Mila, about 370 kilometres east of the capital Algiers, where 15 children died. Hundreds of homes are flooded or battered by hailstones in the affected regions of Guelma and Annaba. Several bridges are destroyed and vegetable farms devastated in the Batna region.

CIDI: Alberia Floods, OCHA-01
Flooding in Hunan Province proves the worst since 1998, particularly along the eastern and southern part of the Dongting Lake where the water level rises above the warning line with flood water flowing from the two rivers of Xiangjiang and Zishui. In addition to the flood damage caused by the Typhoon Beimian in early August, heavy persistent rainfall over a vast area since 11 August 2002 leads to widespread flooding in Hunan Province, severely affecting the region, notably Yongzhou, Shaoyang, Loudi, Yueyang, Yiyang, Changsha, Xangtan and Hengyang. 5,250,000 people in 41 counties (cities or districts) of 8 cities are affected to different degrees; 16 people reported dead; 250,000 people in 339 villages are besieged by flood water; and 5 county towns are inundated. 27,000 housing units collapse; 67,000 housing units are damaged; 268,000 hectares of crops are damaged; and 92,000 hectares of crops are lost.

CIDI: China Floods, OCHA-05
Continuous floods wreak havoc in the north east and eastern provinces. 29 casualties reported; over one million are affected by rising flood waters; more than 450,000 people are displaced from five provinces: Stung Treng, Kratie, Kampong Cham, Prey Veng and Kandal. As of 25 Sept., 2 districts in Takeo, three in Prey Veng, and two in Kandal remain flooded. According to the Mekong River Commission, water levels continue to exceed alarm stages in the lower reaches of the river, between Phnom Penh and the border with Viet Nam, and are expected to rise and exceed alarm stages at Pakse, Kampong Cham and Phnom Penh gauging stations in the coming days.

ReliefWeb: Cambodia Floods/Drought
CIDI: Cambodia Floods, OCHA-02
CIDI: Cambodia Floods, OCHA-01
Heavy monsoon rains continue to take their toll in Nepal by triggering flash floods and landslides. A huge landslide strikes the remote mountain village of Thapra in Ramechap district in eastern Nepal. More than 40 houses are swept away and 41 people who were asleep at the time, are confirmed dead. Another 24 (possibly more) are missing and feared killed by the landslide. Since mid July, 419 are reported dead from floods/landslides; 53 missing; 105 injured; 53,152 families affected; 19,485 homes destroyed.

CIDI: Nepal—VFloods, OCHA-06
Czech Republic
Southern Bohemia and other areas in the north-west of the Czech Republic are stricken by major floods. The most affected areas are Prague, Central and Southern Bohemia, Pilsner, Carlsbad and Usti Districts. Over 200,000 are evacuated; 10 casualties reported; 1,000 rescued. Damage caused by the disaster is estimated at CZK 63 billion (equivalent to about US$ 2 billion).

CIDI: Czech Republic—Floods, OCHA-05
CIDI: Czech Republic—Floods, OCHA-04
CIDI: Czech Republic—Floods, OCHA-03
CIDI: Czech Republic—Floods, OCHA-01
Flash floods triggered by torrential rains affect several urban and rural areas in Golestan, Khorasan and Semnan provinces in north-eastern Iran. Floods cut the road links between the affected areas and the rest of the province. Rains wash away nine of the bridges and other infrastructure that were reconstructed after last year's flood. 39 deaths are reported. 200,000 are affected. 4,300 hectare of agricultural fields are heavily damaged and crop products are completely lost. Another 8,000 uncultivated agricultural fields are damaged. Losses of livestock are reported. Irrigation facilities are also heavily damaged.

CIDI: Iran—Floods, OCHA-02
CIDI: Iran—Floods, OCHA-01
A flash flood struck the village of Dasht close to the administrative centre of Roshtqala (45 km south east of Khorog, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province). 24 casualties are reported, 501 displaced, 75 houses destroyed and a total of 170 damaged. Two bridges, one school building and 4 km of road are damaged.

CIDI: Tajikistan—Floods, OCHA-03
CIDI: Tajikistan—Floods, OCHA-02
CIDI: Tajikistan—Floods, OCHA-01
Korea (DPRK)
Floods triggered by torrential rains cause casualties and substantial damage in South Pyongan and South Hwanghae Provinces of DPR Korea. 19,637 are reported homeless; 436 injured; 38,370 in South Pyongan Province affected.

CIDI: Korea (DPRK)#151Floods, OCHA-03
Papua New Guinea
Following small earthquakes and tremors which began early July 2002, the Mount Pago Volcano, in Papua New Guinea's West New Britain Province, spews fine ash with silicone (a high health risk factor) and fluorine/sulphur dioxide fumes which will cause acid rain. 5 vents on the northwest flank of the Pago cone belch out short lava flows into the crater. More than 12,000 people are evacuated from surrounding villages. No casualties reported.

ReliefWeb: Papua New Guinea—Volcanic Eruption,
OCHA Situation Report No. 1

ReliefWeb: Papua New Guinea—Volcanic Eruption,
OCHA Situation Report No. 2
08/01 thru 10/10
Throughout Aug., Sept., and Oct. of 2002, Thailand is repeatedly hit by flash floods and landslides due to torrential monsoon rains. Initially the floods and landslides affect primarily northern Thailand, but as of late September most of Thailand, including Bangkok, is deluged. A total of 11,726 villages, 2610 sub-districts, 55 King Amphoe (Mini Districts), and 514 are affected. 151 deaths (in 33 provinces) are reported; 62 injured/ill; 3,289,358 people from 891,290 households affected; 31,772 people from 14,351 households evacuated; 8,881 roads, 355 bridges, 994 dams/weirs, 526 drainage canals damaged; 7,887,213 Rai of Agricultural land and 60,246 fish/ shrimp ponds damaged (1 rai=0.16 ha); 1,030 houses completely destroyed, 63,303 damaged; 1,801,248 livestock animals affected; 1,453 government buildings, temples and schools damaged; over one million hectares of farming lands damaged across the country. Total damages estimated at THB 1,565,772,670 (1 USD=43 THB).

ReliefWeb: Thailand Floods
CIDI: Thailand Floods, OSHA-01
Heavy monsoon rains, affecting 46 of the kingdom's 75 districts, trigger massive landslides in the villages of Sungdel and Dipsung of Khotang District in eastern Nepal; 44 are killed; 29 homes are swept away; a healthpost and more than 90 homes are severely damaged. Flash floods and landslides continue to affect twenty districts out of a total of 75. 332 people are reported dead (with over 200 feared dead in Makwanpur district alone), hundreds injured, 60 missing, and 50,000 families affected; 17,000 homes are destroyed and thousands of hectares of farmland are damaged. In Chitwan district, the Rapti river sweeps away nearly 200 houses in the village of Jagatpur, forcing more than 1,000 people to take shelter in local schools. All key highways (Mahendra, Tribhuvan, Prithvi, and Araniko) are blocked by massive landslides for several days; widespread power disruption occurs. The Government of Nepal fears an outbreak of water-born diseases as floods lead to the contamination of drinking water.

CIDI: Nepal—Floods, OCHA-04
CIDI: Nepal—Floods, OCHA-03
CIDI: Nepal—Floods, OCHA-01
Heavy rains cause flooding in low-lying plains in the southern State of Apure, approx. 560 kilometers south-west of Caracas. The populations of Amparo and Guasdualito are the most affected. On July 25, the President of Venezuela declares a state of emergency. 4 are reported dead; over 55,000 affected.

CIDI: Venezuela—Floods, OCHA-02
CIDI: Venezuela—Floods, OCHA-01
Incessant monsoon rains since the beginning of July cause flooding in several parts of India, including Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Kerala, of which the worst affected are Assam and Bihar in northeastern India. Floods and landslides are reported to have killed 549 people (in Assam, 100 are reported dead from encephalitis, a disease caused by mosquito bites in water-logged areas, and which is now affecting hundreds of people); more than 42 million people are affected. Physical infrastructure is severely affected with more than 500,000 houses destroyed or damaged; more than 865,000 acres of farmland in Assam is damaged. In Bihar, the worst affected districts are Sitamrhi, Darbhanga, Supaul, Khagaria, Seohar, Madhubani, Gopalganj and Saharsa. More than 1.3 million people are forced to live in relief camps, on embankments or roads, and rail tracks on higher ground. Road, power and communication infrastructure becomes dysfunctional in Madhubani, Darbhanga and Sitamarhi districts. The loss of public properties is estimated well over INR 1,5 Billion (approximately US $ 30,772,391).

CIDI: India Floods, OCHA-05
CIDI: India Floods, OCHA-04
CIDI: India Floods, OCHA-03
CIDI: India Floods, OCHA-01
Peru, Bolivia
Extreme cold and heavy snowstorms in Argentina, Chile, Perú and Bolivia, with Perú and Bolivia being the most affected. In Perú, temperatures fall to minus 20 degrees, affecting 86,682 and causing 59 deaths due to intense cold. 198 homes are destroyed, 20,732 damaged. The most affected are the very poor rural peasants living in isolated and remote areas in the mountains. It is estimated that 17,896 hectares of crops are destroyed and that the loss of livestock is more than 50%.

DisasterWeb: Peru—Snowstorms
CIDI: Peru—Snowstorms, OCHA-03
Tropical Storm Chata'an, with maximum sustained winds estimated at 112 km/h, hits Chuuk State (formerly Truk), one of four States that make up the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) in the Western Pacific, causing heavy seas and broke power lines between islands. Persistent rainfall causes a series of mudslides on Weno and other islands, that destroy approx. 50 homes and damaged many more. 47 casualties reported, 109 injured, between 120-170 families (900-1,300 people) are estimated to have been directly affected.

ReliefWeb: Micronesia—Tropical Storm Chata'an
CIDI: Micronesia—Tropical Storm Chata'an, OCHA-02
A 6.3 earthquake hits the cities of Hamadan and Qazvin, around 220 kilometers (140 miles) west of Tehran. Major aftershocks are reported for hours after the main quake. In Bou'in-Zahra, a town in Qazvin province, at least 500 people are killed and at least 1,500 injured. The quake devastates the villages' water and power infrastructure. 60 villages around Avaj are razed to the ground or lose half their buildings, with a pair of early strong aftershocks inflicting more damage.

Reuters: Iran Quake
CNN: Death toll rising in northern Iran quake
The Russian Federation
Three days of heavy rains in several regions of the Russian Federation, Stavropol, Krasnodar, Karachaevo-Cherkesia, Ingushetia, Adygea, Chechenya, Kabardono-Balkaria, North Osetia-Alania and Dagestan result in severe floods. 77 deaths are reported, 100 missing, 100,000 affected, and more than 86,000 evacuated. 263 population centers are directly affected with 4,157 buildings destroyed and 3,917 structures suffering varying degrees of damage. Those areas most affected are on the northern-most fringes of the North Caucasus, with Krasnodar Kray, Stavropol Kray and Karachay-Cherkessia taking the brunt of flood damage.

CIDI: The Russian Federation Floods, CWS-03
CIDI: The Russian Federation Floods, OCHA-03
CIDI: The Russian Federation Floods, OCHA-01
El Salvador
The Government of El Salvador declares the state of emergency and general calamity due to the increased number of dengue cases in the departments of Cabanas, Libertad, Santa Ana and San Salvador. Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) reports that 1,301 cases have been confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Children between the ages of 5 and 9 years are the most affected. 6 children die, 4 of whom are confirmed to have contracted the disease, and 2 of whom remain under study.

CIDI: El Salvador—Dengue Outbreak, OCHA-01
At least 2,000 people in Ghana are displaced by floods, caused by heavy rains in the capital, Accra, and in the second largest central city of Kumasi. The city of Accra records 123.3 millimeters of rain during a 10-hour downpour between the night of Sunday 9th June and the morning of Monday 10th June 2002, causing flooding in low-lying sections of the city. Families are evacuated to higher ground. Properties worth billions of Ghanaian Cedi (7,700 Cedi= 1 USD) are destroyed as a result of the floods. 4 deaths are reported (unconfirmed).

CIDI: Ghana Floods, OCHA-01
Severe storms and heavy rains in northwestern China cause widespread floods, mud slides and flows, resulting in many casualties and property loss, primarily in the middle and southern part of Shaanxi, eastern part of Sichuan, western part of Chongqing, northern part of Hubei and northeastern part of Guizhou. The hardest hit areas are the Shaanxi, Sichuan, Chongqing, and Guizhou Provinces in the central part of the country, with total economic loss estimated at over $600 million. 793 are reported dead; over 80 million affected; 773,000 housing units collapsed; 2,020,000 damaged; over 1.61 million hectares of crops affected; over 0.26 million hectares of crops lost; direct economic loss is over CNY 30 billion (USD 3.7 billion); severely affected provinces include Shaanxi, Fujian, Hunan, Sichuan, Chongqing, Guangxi, Hubei, Jiangxi, and Guizhou.

CIDI: China Floods,OCHA-04
CIDI: China Floods,OCHA-03
CIDI: China Floods, CWS
CIDI: China Floods, ACT
CIDI: China Floods, OCHA-01
The central part of Chile is hit with its worst rains in 80 years. A red alert is maintained for Regions V (Valparaiso), VI (Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins) and the Metropolitan Region (Santiago) and has extended it for IV (Coquimbo). 12 are reported dead, 221 missing, 199,511 affected, with 49,310 evacuated and 7,685 sheltered.

CIDI: Chile Floods, OCHA-02
CIDI: Chile Floods, OCHA-01
The Zeyzoun Dam, located near the town of Hamah, on the Orontes River some 350 km north of Damascus, collapses, flooding at least three neighbouring villages. A 60 Km2-wide area is submerged. Zeyzoun village, located immediately under the dam, simply disappears. Telephone lines in the affected areas are cut. 10,000-8,000 are estimated as homeless; 20 deaths are reported, 1 missing.

CIDI: Syria Dam Collapse, IRIN-04
CIDI: Syria Dam Collapse, OCHA-03
CIDI: Syria Dam Collapse, OCHA-01
Cuba &
Flash floods and mudslides continue across the Caribbean after a tropical low unleashes heavy rain across Jamaica, Cuba and Haiti. 26 deaths are reported in Jamaica and Haiti as a result of the storm, dozens more missing. Thousands are forced from their homes.

ReliefWeb: Jamaica, Cuba & Haiti Floods/Landslides
Tropical cyclone Kesiny lands 80km north of Vohemar, in the northern tip of Madagascar, affecting the areas situated between Diego Suarez, Vohemar and Ambilobe in the province of Antsiranana. Heavy rains with average winds of 120km/h and gusts up to 180km/h are recorded. Flooding and landslides caused by heavy rains are reported in Ambilobe, Diego Suarez, and Vohemar in Antsiranana province; 20 casualties are reported, 180 injured.

CIDI: Madagascar—Tropical Cyclone Kesiny, OCHA-02
CIDI: Madagascar—Tropical Cyclone Kesiny, ACT
From January to April, heavy rainfalls are registered in the department of Neembucu in the south of Paraguay. The downpours cause extensive flooding throughout the area. On 6 May, the Government of Paraguay declares the department of Neembucu an emergency area.80% of subsistence crops (manioc, potatoes, beans) and 60% of maize crops (subsistence and cash crops) are lost. The yield of cotton crops not yet harvested is reduced from 900 kg/ha to 500 kg/ha. No casualties are reported.

CIDI: Paraguay Floods, OCHA-01
Costa Rica
Heavy rains cause severe flooding, displacing thousands in the provinces of Limon, Heredia, Cartago, Alajuela. On 10 May, Costa Rica declares a national state of emergency. An estimated 4,000 families are affected by the flooding in the Valle de La Estrella, Talamanca and Siquirres in the province of Limon and Sarapiqui in the province of Heredia. No casualties are reported.

CIDI: Costa Rica Floods, OCHA-01
Due to unusual high temperatures over the Indian Ocean, heavy rains wreak havoc across Eastern Africa for ten days, striking particularly Kenya. The floods are seen as the worst to hit the country since 1998, when the El Nino phenomenon struck the area. Floods and landslides in Kenya kill at least 53 persons and displaced more than 150,000 persons.

CIDI: Kenya Floods, OCHA-01
Several news agencies report that the heat wave in southern India has claimed the lives of 1,030 people. The two-week heat wave culminate in temperatures hitting 120° F. Desperate residents await the cooling rains of monsoon season.

CNN: India heat wave toll tops 1,000
Since 22 April, Bangladesh has been hit by tropical storms five times, the latest on 2 May, as 23 people are killed and many injured. Several thousand hectares of crops are damaged, and thousands of huts destroyed. The northern districts of Gaibandha, Kishorgonj, Rangpur, Nilphamari, Netrokona, Kurigram and Sirajgong are the worst affected.

CIDI: Bangladesh Tropical Storm, OCHA-01
The Indian government reports that a recent heat wave has left at least 622 people dead from heat-related illnesses. Much of India and Pakistan has suffered from scorching heat in recent weeks with the thermometer topping 120° F on several occasions. Authorities continue to search for victims.

BBC News: India's heatwave
Tbilisi is hit by an earthquake registering a magnitude of 6 at the epicenter, located near the Tbilisi Sea reservoir just outside the city, and damages thousands of buildings in Tbilisi. 15,000 residential buildings, and a considerable number of civil buildings are damaged. 350 families lose their homes, 27 churches are damaged, as well as 110 schools, and 77 collective centres where IDP's had been living previously. 160 IDP families became homeless for the second time. 143 families (7,579 persons) are left homeless. 6 casualties are reported.

CIDI: Georgia Earthquake
Georgian Geophysical Society
Heavy rains in Badghis province in western Afghanistan cause flooding in Qala-i-Naw and Ab Kamari districts. 2 people are reported dead, 5 missing due to flash floods. 500 houses are destroyed and 1,200 people in Qala-i-Naw and eight surrounding villages are affected.

CIDI: Afghanistan Floods, OCHA-01
Torrential rains in the eastern mountains of Ethiopia cause flooding in several areas in the eastern regions of Afar, Oromiya and Somali. Media reports loss of life, 4,000 displaced persons and significant material damage.

CIDI: Ethiopia Floods, OCHA-01
A 5.8 earthquake hits Afghanistan, approximately 150 kilometers north of Kabul in Nahrin district, Baghlan province. This most recent earthquake is centered in the same area as the earthquake that struck on 25 March and killed up to 1,000 people and left tens of thousands of people homeless. Initial reports indicate that Dawabi and Khojakheder villages, previously damaged by the 25 March quake, are now completely destroyed. 50 reported dead, 150 injured.

CIDI: Afghanistan Earthquake, OCHA-03
CIDI: Afghanistan Earthquake, OCHA-02
CIDI: Afghanistan Earthquake, OCHA-01
Papua New Guinea
A landslide hits the Wantoat area of Markham District in Morobe Province, 79 km Northwest of Lae. The landslide covers approx. 1 sq. km and srikes two coffee plantation hamlets 6km Northeast of Wantoat District Station, completely burying 12 houses after the collapse of one side of a cliff into the river, possibly triggered by heavy rains and a small earthquake of 5.3 magnitude. 36 casualties reported, 11 injured.

ReliefWeb: Papua New Guinea Landslide
A 7.1 earthquake hits China, near Hualien, 100 kilometres (65 miles) southeast of Taipei. Several buildings in Taipe collapse/partially collapse. Taipei's subway is shut down after a water pipe at a station breaks. Water and gas pipes also rupture around the city. 4 are reported dead, more than 200 injured. Many are reported missing in several collapsed buildings across the city of Taipei.

CIDI: China Earthquake, OCHA-01
A series of earthquakes, with the strongest measuring 6.0 on the Richter Scale, hit Baghlan province of Afghanistan in the evening of 25 March, the early morning 26 March and the afternoon of 27 March. The epicenter of the earthquakes was located southeast of Nahrin district in Baghlan province. The affected area extends in a radius of 12-15 km around Nahrin. An estimated 78 villages are affected by the earthquakes. 7,000 families are affected; latest death toll is reported to range from 800 to 1,000 people.

CIDI: Afghanistan Quake, OCHA-06
CIDI: Afghanistan Quake, OCHA-04
A forest fire in the 8,000-hectare U Minh Thuong National Park in the southern province of Ca Mau rages out of control and reportedly destroys 2,460 hectares of forest. On April 12, a new fire in U Min Ha Forest ravages 3,000 hectares of 12-year old cajeput trees. The new fire burns for over a month, destroying thousands of hectares of forest. The Melaleuca peat forest, representing an environmentally rich ecosystem (which is protected in many parts of the world), is seriously damaged.

CIDI: Vietnam Fires, OCHA-03
CIDI: Vietnam Fires, OCHA-02
CIDI: Vietnam Fires, OCHA-01
A 7.5 earthquake occurs off the coast of the Philippines' island of Mindanao, approximately 75 miles (120 km) west of General Santos City, affecting the south-western coast of the island. Damage is sustained in the four provinces closest to the epicentre: Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and Davao del Sur. 2,405 are evacuated to higher ground; 73,351 persons affected; 7 casualties reported; 39 injuries.

CIDI: Philippines, OCHA-03
CIDI: Philippines, OCHA-01
Heavy rainfalls pelt Ecuador for several weeks in the coastal provinces of Guayas, Los Rios and Manabi, and later Pichincha province, causing floods and landslides in several areas. In Manabi, landslides triggered by heavy rains damaged the coastal resort town of Alajuela, blocking roads and damaging homes. 28 are reported dead, 6 injured, 3 mising, 51,080 affected, 5,255 families evacuated, 3,027 homeless, 435 homes destroyed, 9,541 damaged; rice, coffee and cocoa crops are damaged.

CIDI: Ecuador Floods, OCHA-07
CIDI: Ecuador Floods, OCHA-06
CIDI: Ecuador Floods, OCHA-05
Malawi experiences a serious food shortage countrywide, following floods and widespread cholera epidemic. Cholera outbreaks and deaths related to the food shortage in the Southern Region, particularly in Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Machinga, Mangochi, Mulanje, Nsanje, Phalombe, Thyolo and Zomba are reported. In the Central Region, (Dedza, Lilongwe, Mchinji, Nkhotakota, Ntcheu and Salima) cholera-related deaths are reported. The total number of cases recorded is approx. 9,131, in addition to 161 deaths.

CIDI: Malawi Flood/Drought, OCHA-02
CIDI: Malawi Flood/Drought, OCHA-01
A 7.2 earthquake strikes Afghanistan; the epicenter is located in the Hindu Kush region with a depth of 195 km. and is felt in Kabul, Jalalabad, Faizabad, Mazar-i-Sharif and Bamiyan and triggers a major landslide. The situation in Karyia-e-Zao and Dehnao villages of the Surkundara valley, Samanghan province, which were hit by the earthquake and subsequent landslide on 3 March, is remains precarious as more parts of the mountain cliff crumble down on 5 March. On 6 March, 70 percent of the affected area is flooded, due to landslide debris that blocks the river. 70-75 people reported missing, assumed dead.

CIDI: Afghanistan Quake, OCHA-01
CIDI: Afghanistan Quake, OCHA-03
Federated States of Micronesia
Tropical Storm MITAG impacts the eastern part of Yap State, one of four states that make up the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) in the Western Pacific. Maximum sustained winds are estimated at 95 knots (approx. 175 km/h), with gusts up to 115 knots (approximately 212 km/h). No deaths or serious injuries reported, but destructive winds and a tidal surge destroy nearly all food crops in low-lying areas in the north, northeast, and southern parts of Yap Main Island, up to 400-500 m inland. The tidal surge brings many low-lying areas, including parts of Colonia (the main town), under water for several hours. 150,200 people lose their homes.

CIDI: Micronesia, OCHA-03
The Government of Djibouti requests international assistance to contain a toxic spill of chromated copper arsenate (CCA), a wood preservative and fungicide, at the Port of Djibouti (nearly three months after the spill was initially discovered on 9 January). Health concerns in the community increase, with the threat of the rainy season coming and the overall lack of communication on possible health effects and consequences of the CCA spill. Per latest figures by WHO, as many as 350 persons are believed to have been exposed. To date, one death is reported, though a direct link to chemical exposure has yet to be established.

CIDI: Djibouti—Toxic Pollution, OCHA-02
CIDI: Djibouti—Toxic Pollution, OCHA-01
La Paz (district of Cotahuma, Central Tacagua) is hit with torrential rains & hailstorms, causing floods. 70 people reported dead, 100 injured, 30 missing and at least 515 homeless. Hailstorms, heavy rains and flash floods tear through the region, destroying homes, washing away bridges and ripping up road surfaces and brick walls. Affected persons are estimated at 5,000, approximately 1,200 families.

IFRC: Bolivia floods leave scores dead
DisasterWeb: Bolivia Floods
CIDI: Bolivia Floods, OCHA-05
A 5.2 earthquake shakes areas in Boushehr and Fars provinces, in southern Iran. 1 casuality is reported, 30 injured. The epicentre is located in and around the village of Baghan, where 80% to 100% of houses are destroyed or damaged, as well as communication lines and power installations.

ReliefWeb: Iran Quake
CIDI: Iran Quake, OCHA-01
A 6.0 earthquake strikes the province of Afyon in the Western Turkey. The epicenter of the quake is the Sultandagi sub-province of Afyon province 190 km southwest to the capital Ankara and some 305 km southeast to Istanbul. The sub-provinces of Cay, Bolvadin, Cobanlar and Sincanli are also severely hit by the earthquake. 71 buildings totally collapse or are severely damaged; a total of 622 heavily damaged buildings consist of 341 homes, 246 offices and 35 public buildings. 33 primary schools suffer minor damage. A big industrial site in the district of Cay totally collapses but no casualty are reported at that location. 44 casualties are reported, 318 injured.

ReliefWeb: Turkey Earthquake
CIDI: Turkey Earthquake, OCHA-03
More than 1,000 people are confirmed dead as a result of massive explosions that follow a fire at an ammunitions dump in Nigeria's biggest city, Lagos.

CIDI: Nigeria Explosion, IRIN
CIDI: Nigeria Explosion, OCHA-04
Two weeks of continuous torrential rains flood the greater Jakarta area, leaving the city paralyzed. The water reaches up to nearly 10 feet in some places and claims more than 150 lives (57 people die in Jakarta and the surrounding towns of Bekasi, Tangerang and Depok). Flooding affects 20 districts out of the city's total number of 37 districts. At least 750 flood victims, suffering from diarrhoea, severe breathing problems, cough, colds, skin rashes and sore eyes, are treated in various hospitals. More than 30,000 are evacuated from their homes; 42,400 are displaced.

CIDI: Indonesia Floods, CWS
CIDI: Indonesia Floods, OCHA-05
With winds up to 200 kms per hour, Tropical Storm Dina hits Mauritius and Reunion causing widespread destruction of shelter and infrastructure. On Mauritius, roads are cut, the electricity network is severely damaged, the water distribution network is damaged, and many homes and buildings are damaged in the high winds. 4 fatalities are reported, and 50 injured. Most schools sustain serious damage and all are closed for several days. Mauritius sugarcane crop is severely damaged. On Reunion, 50% of the population are without electricity, 2,800 displaced. Roads are either cut or difficult to pass, numerous people are injured—the fire department treats close to 300 and ambulance services make 509 interventions on the island.

ReliefWeb: Mauritius/Reunion—Tropical Cyclone Dina
DR Congo/
The highly active Nyiragongo Volcano, a few kilometres north of the eastern Congolese town of Goma and just north of Lake Kivu, erupts with little advance warning. Two lava tongues reach Goma and divide the city into three parts. Approx. fifteen percent of the town, especially the commercial area and much of the water and electricity supply, is destroyed by the lava flows and resulting fires. 5 casualties are reported during the first hours of the disaster and 40 later due to an explosion of a petrol station. Total death count revised to 147 on Jan.30. Lava flows trigger a massive exodus from Goma, some going southwards inside DRC towards Saké, but the majority (approx. 400,000 people) flee across the adjacent border into neighbouring Rwanda in the vicinity of Gisenyi. Approx. 30,000 displaced; 14,000 homes destroyed.

ReliefWeb: DR Congo—Volcanic Activity Nyamulagira
CIDI: DR Congo—Volcanic Activity Nyamulagira
Flash floods triggered by torrential rains inundate several urban and rural areas in Bushehr, Khouzistan, Fars, Kerman and other southern provinces of Iran. The amount of rainfall in Bushehr is the highest in 28 years. The suburbs of Bushehr and Shiraz, the capital cities of Bushehr and Fars provinces respectively, are completely inundated and water supply of Bushehr city cut. Roads are washed away and power lines brought down. The affected population of 59 villages in Khuzestan and 30 villages in Bushehr (Fars Province) are evacuated to safe areas. 11 casualties are reported.
CIDI: Iran Floods
Heavy off-season rains and a cold wave (temperature drops from 40 degrees Celsius to 16) hits North Senegal. 28 deaths are reported; more than 179,000 persons affected. An estimated 470,000 heads of livestock are lost.

IFRC: Bolivia floods leave scores dead
DisasterWeb: Senegal Floods
A 5.3 earthquake strikes an area of Tajikistan near to the town of Rogun, approximately 100 km east of the capital Dushanbe. Effects of the earthquake are assessed in two villages of Taghi Akbar and Talkhan Chashma, site of the biggest damage, where 3 casualties and 6 injured are reported. Over 90% of the houses are destroyed or damaged beyond repair. Approx. 1,500 are affected.

CIDI: Tajikistan Earthquake, OCHA-01
Tropical Storm Cyprien hits the south-west coast of Madagascar, close to the district of Morombe, generating maximum winds of 150km/hr. 900 people in the town of Morombe are affected, 180 homes and 14 administrative buildings destroyed and electricity supplies cut. In the Morondova district, 1000 persons are adversely affected with 661 houses destroyed. 2 are reported missing near Morombe. No casualties are reported.

CIDI: OCHA Report 1
A 7.3 earthquake hits the tiny Pacific nation of Vanuatu. No casualties reported; widespread damage to bridges, roads and buildings around the capital Port Vila and the town of Efate.

ReliefWeb: Vanuatu Earthquake
Heavy rains at the end of December 01 thru the first week of January 02 cause flooding in the 4 districts of Chikwawa, Dedza, Salima, and Karonga after swollen Mwanza and Shire rivers burst their banks. Chikwawa district is the most severely hit with 1,750 households in 13 villages being affected. A total of 220 people are displaced with loss of all their properties and homes. Over 4,000 farmers lose their crops. No casualties reported.

CIDI: Malawi Floods
. . . . . . . . . .

Timeline Sources: ReliefWeb, Center for International Disaster Information

Additional resources:
Major Disasters Worldwide: 2003
World Disasters Report 2002 (Red Cross Red Crescent); full document available online
Center for International Disaster Information

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